Description ‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬ ‫وزارة التعليم‬ ‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬ Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Education Saudi

Description

‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬
‫وزارة التعليم‬
‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Education
Saudi Electronic Company
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 3
Decision Making and Problem Solving (MGT 312)
Due Date: End of Week 13, 04-05-2024
Course Name: Decision Making and Problem Student’s Name:
Solving
Course Code: MGT312
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: Second
CRN:
Academic Year:2023-24; SECOND SEMESTER
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade:
/ 10
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY








The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented; marks may be reduced
for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
Late submission will NOT be accepted.
Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other
resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No
pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Learning Outcomes:
1. Describe decision making process for complex issues pertaining to business
environment both internally and externally. (C.L.O :1.1)
2. Demonstrate decision tools and employ appropriate analytical business models to
break down complex issues. (C.L.O :2.2)
3. Analyze ethical issues and dilemmas that businesses often face and employ ethical
standards in all manners and circumstances. (C.L.O :3.2)
Case Study:
Saud works for a XYZ company as an administrative officer. He has been working there
for more than fifteen years. He is considered one of the most experienced employees of the
company. Saud is a graduate and has not upgraded himself in his tenure. His performance
is satisfactory in the routine work but has shown no interest and active participation in
changing the existing environment.
Hussain Alghassani is a Chairman of Company. He is a kindhearted person and always has
a soft corner for his employees. He has not fired a single employee from the company on
the basis of poor performance. He gives a good raise in salaries to those employees who
perform well and keep upgrading themselves. Saud is a middle-aged person having three
school going children. He is a bread earner of his family and the survival totally depends
on his salary. Due to his below average performance his salary has not been raised since
the last few years. Hussain knows very well about Saud and his family.
Tarique has recently joined as a Director, HR and Administration Department. He has got
a vast experience in HR departments of different well reputed universities. The meeting of
the board of directors is held regarding annual increment in the employees’ salaries.
Evaluating each employee’s performance is one of the meeting agenda. The meeting is
chaired by chairman, Hussain. When the discussion comes to Saud, the board gives
suggestions not to raise his salary due to his poor performance throughout the year. Tarique
is against the board and its suggestions. He says that not raising any employee’s salary for
many years is unethical and cannot be justified. He supports Saud by saying that he has
given more than fifty percent of his professional life and he deserves promotion as well as
increment. Tarique suggests the chairman, Hussain to fire Saud or promote him. Tarique
strongly believes that not raising salaries is a demotivating factor and has a negative effect
on employee’s behavior and performance. Tarique suggests Hussain to love or leave him.
Read the above case study and answer the following questions:
1. Identify the main problem and subproblems of the case?
[Mark 1]
2. Write all the information present in the case that would be helpful for decision. What
other information should you gather, that would be helpful to know before making
decision? Identify alternative choices for decision.
[Mark 2]
3. Weighing the alternatives
[Marks 2]
When weighing the various alternatives, how well each alternative fulfils the
variables to consider can be expressed as scores. A different rating scale will be used
to assess each alternative:
+2 very suitable
+1 quite suitable
0 neither suitable nor unsuitable
-1 not quite suitable
-2 not suitable at all
Note: Positive numbers (+2 or +1) indicate that the alternative is able to fulfil the
variables, whereas negative numbers (-2 or -1) denote the opposite.
4. Draw a decision tree based on the case study for decision making,
[2 Marks]
5. As chairman of the XYZ company, How will you manage this ethical dilemma? what
will be your decision regarding Saud?
[Mark 2]
6. Write the conclusion and overall assessment.
[Marks 1]
Answers
1. Answer2. Answer3. Answer4. Answer5. Answer6. Answer-
Part 1: Identifying and Defining Problems
Objectives
• Understand problem solving
• Analyze problems
• Work with problem owners and
stakeholders
• Develop effective problem statements
• ‫فهم حل المشكالت‬
• ‫تحليل المشاكل‬
• ‫العمل مع أصحاب المشكلة وأصحاب المصلحة‬
‫تطوير بيانات مشكلة فعالة‬
Objectives
• Determine causes
• Simplify complex problems
• Identify and manage risks
• Avoid problem-solving traps

‫تحديد األسباب‬
• ‫تبسيط المشاكل المعقدة‬
• ‫تحديد وإدارة المخاطر‬
• ‫تجنب الفخاخ حل المشاكل‬
Understanding Problem Solving
• A professional in any occupation
should be a problem solver
• People who can identify, define, and
solve problems are valued members
of an organization
• ‫يجب أن يكون المحترف في أي مهنة حالً للمشاكل‬
‫األشخاص الذين يمكنهم تحديد المشكالت وتحديدها‬
‫وحلها هم أعضاء قيّمان في منظمة ما‬
Understanding Problem Solving
• Guidelines for solving problems:
• Identify yourself as a problem solver
• Recognize problems
• Select an intuitive approach for solving
problems
• Select a systematic approach for solving
problems
• Make decisions
:‫إرشادات لحل المشكالت‬
‫حدد نفسك كحل للمشكلة‬
‫التعرف على المشاكل‬
‫حدد طريقة بديهية لحل المشكالت‬
‫حدد طريقة منظمة لحل المشكالت‬
‫صنع القرارات‬
Understanding Problem Solving
Basic problem-solving steps
‫خطوات حل المشاكل األساسية‬
‫تحديد المشكلة‬
‫تجميع المعلومات‬
‫وضوح المشكلة‬
‫النظر في الوضع المحتمل‬
‫حدد الخيار األفضل‬
‫اتخاذ القرار ومراقبة الحل‬
Analyzing Problems
• Companies rely on employees to
identify problems and solve them
• Much of the effort in problem solving
involves understanding what the
underlying issues really are
• Defining the real problem is the first
major milestone on the way to a
solution
• ‫تعتمد الشركات على الموظفين لتحديد المشاكل وحلها يتضمن‬
‫الكثير من الجهد المبذول في حل المشكالت فهم القضايا‬
‫األساسية بالفعل إن تحديد المشكلة الحقيقية هو أول معلم‬
‫رئيسي على الطريق إلى الحل‬
Analyzing Problems
• Do’s and Don’ts for analyzing
problems:
• Look for deficiencies
• Interview and gather data
• Observe as much as you can
• Ask what, not who
• Have a reality check

‫ ابحث‬:‫ما يجب فعله وما ال يجب فعله لتحليل المشكالت‬
‫عن النواقص مقابلة وجمع البيانات مراقبة قدر ما تستطيع‬
‫ وليس من لديك التحقق من الواقع‬، ‫اسأل ماذا‬
Working with Problem Owners and
Stakeholders
‫العمل مع أصحاب المشكلة وأصحاب المصلحة‬
• When you solve a problem for
someone else, that person is the
problem owner
• Stakeholders are people who are also
affected or whose involvement you
need to resolve the matter

‫ فهذا الشخص هو‬، ‫عندما تحل مشكلة لشخص آخر‬
‫مالك المشكلة أصحاب المصلحة هم األشخاص‬
‫ضا أو الذين تحتاج مشاركتهم لحل المسألة‬
ً ‫المتأثرون أي‬
Working with Problem Owners and
Stakeholders
‫العمل مع أصحاب المشكلة وأصحاب المصلحة‬
• Do’s and Don’ts for working with
problem owners and stakeholders:
• Solicit input from the problem owners
• Recognize opinions and assumptions
• Communicate your progress clearly
• Do your homework carefully
• Provide choices
• Promote your solution
‫ما يجب فعله وما ال يجب فعله للتعامل مع أصحاب المشكالت‬
:‫وأصحاب المصلحة‬
• ‫التماس مدخالت من أصحاب المشكلة التعرف على اآلراء‬
‫واالفتراضات التواصل تقدمك بشكل واضح قم بأداء واجبك بعناية‬
‫توفير الخيارات تعزيز الحل الخاص بك‬
Developing Effective Problem Statements
‫تطوير بيانات المشاكل الفعالة‬
• A problem statement is a clear, concise
description of the problem and the effect
you expect from the solution
• The purpose of the problem statement is to
describe a single problem objectively
• Include the problem statement in your
proposals, progress reports, and
discussions with stakeholders

‫بيان المشكلة هو وصف واضح وموجز للمشكلة واألثر الذي‬
‫تتوقعه من الحل الغرض من بيان المشكلة هو وصف مشكلة‬
‫واحدة بموضوعية قم بتضمين بيان المشكلة في المقترحات‬
‫والتقارير المرحلية والمناقشات مع أصحاب المصلحة‬
Developing Effective Problem Statements
‫تطوير بيانات المشاكل الفعالة‬
• Guidelines for developing problem
statements:






Describe the ideal situation
Briefly summarize the problem
Identify symptoms of the problem
Describe the size and scope of the problem
Identify the consequences
Explain any other research or investigation that
you may pursue
:‫إرشادات لتطوير عبارات المشكلة‬
‫وصف الوضع المثالي تلخيص المشكلة باختصار التعرف على‬
‫أعراض المشكلة صف حجم ونطاق المشكلة تحديد العواقب اشرح أي‬
‫بحث أو تحقيق آخر يمكنك متابعته‬
Determining Causes
‫تحديد األسباب‬
• It is common to overlook the root cause of
problems and focus only on symptoms
• Complex situations usually involve
interrelated problems, each with a different
cause
• To link a problem to its cause, you must
perform a root-cause analysis, a study that
determines the real basis for the problem
‫من الشائع التغاضي عن األسباب الجذرية للمشاكل والتركيز‬
‫فقط على األعراض عادة ما تتضمن الحاالت المعقدة مشكالت‬
، ‫ لكل منها أسباب مختلفة لربط مشكلة بقضيتها‬، ‫مترابطة‬
‫ وهي دراسة تحدد األساس‬، ‫يجب إجراء تحليل جذري‬
‫الحقيقي للمشكلة‬
Determining Causes
‫تحديد األسباب‬
• To determine causes:






Differentiate between symptoms and causes
Look for more than one cause
Consider the cost
Use the 5 Whys technique
Create a cause-and-effect diagram
:‫لتحديد األسباب‬
• ‫التفريق بين األعراض واألسباب ابحث عن أكثر من سبب واحد‬
5 ‫النظر في التكلفة استخدم تقنية‬Whys ‫قم بإنشاء رسم بياني‬
‫للسبب والتأثير‬
Determining Causes‫تحديد األسباب‬
Cause-and-effect diagram
‫السبب والنتيجة رسم بياني‬
Simplifying Complex Problems
‫تبسيط المشاكل المعقدة‬
• Complex problems have no clear boundaries,
are unique, and have no single optimal
solution
• Complex problems frequently involve multiple
stakeholders with competing agendas
• Most complex problems consist of smaller sub
problems that affect each other in ways that
complicate the larger problems
• ‫ وليس لها حل مثالي واحد‬، ‫ وهي فريدة‬، ‫المشاكل المعقدة ليس لها حدود واضحة‬

‫المشاكل المعقدة في كثير من األحيان تنطوي على العديد من أصحاب المصلحة مع‬
‫جداول األعمال المتنافسة‬

‫تتكون معظم المشاكل المعقدة من مشكالت فرعية أصغر تؤثر على بعضها البعض‬
‫بطرق تعقيد المشكالت األكبر‬
Simplifying Complex Problems
‫تبسيط المشاكل المعقدة‬
• To simplify complex problems:





Identify the major symptoms
Consider each problem individually
Rank the sub problems
Look for interdependencies
Delegate sub problems
:‫لتبسيط المشاكل المعقدة‬
‫التعرف على األعراض الرئيسية‬
‫النظر في كل مشكلة على حدة‬
‫رتب المشاكل الفرعية‬
‫ابحث عن االعتمادات المتبادلة‬
‫مندوب المشاكل الفرعية‬
Identifying and Managing Risks
‫تحديد وإدارة المخاطر‬
• Any decision you make or solution you
implement involves some risk, which is an
exposure to a chance of loss or damage
• Risk is an inevitable part of business,
especially when you are introducing
creative changes
• With careful planning, you can often avoid
many of these risks or reduce their
drawbacks
‫ وهو التعرض لفرصة‬، ‫ينطوي أي قرار تقوم به أو حل تقوم بتطبيقه على بعض المخاطر‬
‫الضياع أو التلف‬
‫ خاصة عندما تقوم بتقديم تغييرات إبداعية‬، ‫الخطر هو جزء ال مفر منه في العمل‬
‫ يمكنك في كثير من األحيان تجنب العديد من هذه المخاطر أو الحد‬، ‫مع التخطيط الدقيق‬
‫من عيوبها‬
Identifying and Managing Risks
‫تحديد وإدارة المخاطر‬
• Guidelines for identifying and managing
risks:





Be aware of potential risks
Assess your risk/reward ratio
Reduce your risk by testing
Develop a fallback position or a backup plan
Keep everyone informed
:‫إرشادات لتحديد وإدارة المخاطر‬
‫كن على بينة من المخاطر المحتملة‬
‫ المكافآت الخاصة بك‬/ ‫تقييم نسبة المخاطر‬
‫تقليل المخاطر عن طريق االختبار‬
‫تطوير موقف احتياطي أو خطة احتياطية‬
‫ابق الجميع على اطالع‬
Avoiding Problem-Solving Traps
‫تجنب مصاعب حل المشكالت‬
• Solving problems demands the following:




Logical thinking
Creative thinking
Willingness to redefine goals
Acceptance of solutions that manage rather
than eliminate problems
• Habits and unacknowledged biases impair
problem solvers’ ability to solve problems
:‫حل المشكالت يتطلب ما يلي‬
‫التفكير المنطقي‬
‫تفكير إبداعي‬
‫الرغبة في إعادة تعريف األهداف‬
‫قبول الحلول التي تدير المشاكل بدالً من القضاء عليها‬
‫تضعف العادات والتحيزات غير المعترف بها من قدرة أصحاب المشكالت على حل المشكالت‬
Avoiding Problem-Solving Traps
‫تجنب مصاعب حل المشكالت‬
• To avoid problem-solving traps:
• Avoid the positive outcome bias
• Avoid “not invented here”
• Avoid the need for quick closure
• Avoid the bandwagon effect
• Avoid self-serving bias
:‫لتجنب الفخاخ حل المشكالت‬
‫تجنب انحياز النتيجة اإليجابية‬
“‫تجنب “لم يخترع هنا‬
‫تجنب الحاجة إلى إغالق سريع‬
‫تجنب تأثير العربة‬
‫تجنب التحيز الذاتي‬
Avoiding Problem-Solving Traps
‫تجنب مصاعب حل المشكالت‬
Avoid the bandwagon, or herd, effect
‫ التأثير‬، ‫ أو القطيع‬، ‫تجنب العربة‬
Technology @ Work: Crowdsourcing
‫ التعهيد الجماعي‬:‫تكنولوجيا @ العمل‬
• Crowdsourcing characterizes a way of using
groups to solve problems
• The groups are usually online communities
• An organization broadcasts a problem to the
crowd as an open call for solutions
• The crowd submits solutions, then sorts through
them, finding the best ones
• ‫يميز التعهيد الجماعي طريقة الستخدام المجموعات لحل المشكالت‬
• ‫عادةً ما تكون المجموعات عبارة عن منتديات عبر اإلنترنت‬
• ‫تبث منظمة مشكلة للحشد كمكالمة مفتوحة للحلول‬
• ‫ للعثور على‬، ‫ ثم يتم فرزها من خاللهم‬، ‫يقوم الحشد بتقديم الحلول‬
‫أفضلها‬
Technology @ Work:
Crowdsourcing
• Advantages of crowdsourcing to a
company are that it can investigate
problems at low cost and produce
innovative solutions from a wider range of
amateurs and experts than it employs
• Risks to the company are that it might
waste time looking for a solution from the
crowd, who is not committed to helping the
company
‫مزايا التعهيد الجماعي لشركة ما هي أنها تستطيع التحقيق في‬
‫المشاكل بتكلفة منخفضة وإنتاج حلول مبتكرة من مجموعة‬
‫أوسع من الهواة والخبراء مما توظفه المخاطر على الشركة‬
‫ الذي‬، ‫هي أنها قد تضيع الوقت في البحث عن حل من الحشد‬
‫ال يلتزم بمساعدة الشركة‬
Technology@ Work:
Crowdsourcing
• Successful examples of crowdsourcing
include proofreading StumbleUpon and
Stardust@home
• Guidelines for crowdsourcing:










Strength in numbers
Collaboration matters
Different, not necessarily better
Good for the company, not for the crowd
‫لأمثلة الناجحة على التعهيد الجماعي تشمل تدقيق‬StumbleUpon ‫و‬
Stardust @ home
:‫إرشادات التعهيد الجماعي‬
‫قوة في األرقام‬
‫التعاون مهم‬
‫ وليس بالضرورة أفضل‬، ‫مختلفة‬
‫جيد للشركة وليس للحشد‬
Technology @ Work:
Crowdsourcing
Challenge.gov
Summary
• Keep problem solving guidelines in mind
• Analyze problems as the first step in
solving them
• Involve problem owners and stakeholders
in the problem solving process
• Develop effective problem statements
‫الحفاظ على المبادئ التوجيهية حل المشكلة في االعتبار‬
‫تحليل المشاكل كخطوة أولى في حلها‬
‫إشراك أصحاب المشكلة وأصحاب المصلحة في عملية حل‬
‫المشكلة‬
‫تطوير بيانات مشكلة فعالة‬
Summary
• To link a problem to its cause, perform
root-cause analysis
• Simplify complex problems as much as
possible
• Be aware of and manage risk when
implementing solutions
• Avoid problem-solving traps
• ‫ قم بإجراء تحليل السبب الجذري‬، ‫لربط مشكلة بقضيتها‬
• ‫تبسيط المشاكل المعقدة قدر اإلمكان‬
• ‫كن على علم وإدارة المخاطر عند تنفيذ الحلول‬
• ‫تجنب الفخاخ حل المشاكل‬
Part 2: Solving the Problem
Objectives
Gather and analyze data
Develop alternatives
Evaluate options
Implement the solution
‫ﺟﻣﻊ وﺗﺣﻠﯾل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬
‫ﺗطوﯾر ﺑداﺋل‬
‫ﺗﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﺧﯾﺎرات‬
‫ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﺣل‬
Objectives
Monitor and manage the solution
Verify the solution
Use adaptive techniques
Develop ethical solutions
‫ﻣراﻗﺑﺔ وإدارة اﻟﺣل‬
‫ﺗﺣﻘق ﻣن اﻟﺣل‬
‫اﺳﺗﺧدم ﺗﻘﻧﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻛﯾف‬
‫ﺗطوﯾر اﻟﺣﻠول اﻷﺧﻼﻗﯾﺔ‬
Gathering and Analyzing Data
Before you can solve a business problem, you
should gather relevant data and analyze it
Successful business decisions are based on
sound information
To systematically gather and analyze the data
related to your problem, start by identifying your
goal and looking for information related to it
‫ ﯾﺟب ﻋﻠﯾك ﺟﻣﻊ اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ذات‬، ‫ﻗﺑل أن ﺗﺗﻣﻛن ﻣن ﺣل ﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ أﻋﻣﺎل‬
‫اﻟﺻﻠﺔ وﺗﺣﻠﯾﻠﮭﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺳﺗﻧد ﻗرارات اﻷﻋﻣﺎل اﻟﻧﺎﺟﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت اﻟﺳﻠﯾﻣﺔ‬
‫ اﺑدأ ﺑﺗﺣدﯾد ھدﻓك‬، ‫ﻟﺟﻣﻊ وﺗﺣﻠﯾل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻣﺷﻛﻠﺗك ﺑﺷﻛل ﻣﻧﮭﺟﻲ‬
‫واﻟﺑﺣث ﻋن اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﮫ‬
Gathering and Analyzing Data
Guidelines for gathering data:
Ø Define your data needs
Ø Do not overestimate what you know about the problem
Ø Document the data and its sources
Ø Examine existing information first
Ø Rely on people as your most important resource
Ø Consider interrelationships
Ø : ‫إرﺷﺎدات ﻟﺟﻣﻊ اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬
Ø ‫ﺗﺣدﯾد اﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑك‬
Ø ‫ﻻ ﺗﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘدﯾر ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌرﻓﮫ ﻋن اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﺗوﺛﯾق اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت وﻣﺻﺎدرھﺎ‬
Ø ‫دراﺳﺔ اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت اﻟﻣوﺟودة أوﻻ‬
Ø ‫اﻋﺗﻣد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻧﺎس ﻛﺄھم ﻣورد ﻟدﯾك‬
Ø ‫اﻟﻧظر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﺑﺎدﻟﺔ‬
Gathering and Analyzing Data
Viewing data in different ways ‫ﻋرض اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﺑطرق ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ‬
Developing Alternatives
After researching a problem and
collecting data, start to consider
alternatives and solutions
This creative phase of the process
requires imagination and intuition
‫ اﺑدأ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر‬، ‫ﺑﻌد اﻟﺑﺣث ﻋن ﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ وﺟﻣﻊ اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬
‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺑداﺋل واﻟﺣﻠول‬
‫ﺗﺗطﻠب ھذه اﻟﻣرﺣﻠﺔ اﻹﺑداﻋﯾﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺔ ﺧﯾﺎل وﺣد ًﺳﺎ‬
Developing Alternatives
Guidelines for developing
alternatives:
Ø Think creatively
Ø Brainstorm ideas
Ø Ask others for advice
Ø Develop a mind map
Ø :‫إرﺷﺎدات ﻟﺗطوﯾر اﻟﺑداﺋل‬
Ø ‫ﻓﻛر ﺑطرﯾﻘﺔ إﺑداﻋﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫وﺿﻊ اﻷﻓﻛﺎر‬
Ø ‫اطﻠب ﻣن اﻵﺧرﯾن اﻟﻧﺻﯾﺣﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﺗطوﯾر اﻟﺧرﯾطﺔ اﻟذھﻧﯾﺔ‬
Analyzing Problems
Brainstorming ‫اﻟﻌﺻف اﻟذھﻧﻲ‬
Analyzing Problems
Mind Map ‫ﺧرﯾطﺔ ذھﻧﯾﺔ‬
Evaluating Options
Analyze the trade-offs among competing needs
and options
Your goal should be to develop a good solution by
evaluating, modifying, and improving on your
ideas
Asses each alternative carefully
Use objective criteria to avoid making snap
decisions
‫ﺗﺣﻠﯾل اﻟﻣﻘﺎﯾﺿﺎت ﺑﯾن اﻻﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت واﻟﺧﯾﺎرات اﻟﻣﺗﻧﺎﻓﺳﺔ‬
‫ﯾﺟب أن ﯾﻛون ھدﻓك ھو ﺗطوﯾر ﺣل ﺟﯾد ﻣن ﺧﻼل ﺗﻘﯾﯾم أﻓﻛﺎرك وﺗﻌدﯾﻠﮭﺎ‬
‫وﺗﺣﺳﯾﻧﮭﺎ‬
‫ﯾﻘرر ﻛل ﺑدﯾل ﺑﻌﻧﺎﯾﺔ‬
‫اﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر ﻣوﺿوﻋﯾﺔ ﻟﺗﺟﻧب اﺗﺧﺎذ ﻗرارات ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺋﺔ‬
Evaluating Options
Steps in evaluation options:
Ø Choose an evaluation method
Ø Select the criteria
Ø Weigh your criteria
Ø Rate the alternatives
Ø Make a decision
Ø :‫ﺧطوات ﻓﻲ ﺧﯾﺎرات اﻟﺗﻘﯾﯾم‬
Ø ‫اﺧﺗر طرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺗﻘﯾﯾم‬
Ø ‫ﺣدد اﻟﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر‬
Ø ‫زن اﻟﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑك‬
Ø ‫ﻗﯾم اﻟﺑداﺋل‬
Ø ‫اﺻﻧﻊ ﻗرار‬
Implementing the Solution
Moving from planning to implementation is a
significant milestone
During implementation, you begin to make
decisions, take actions, and put your plans into
practice
Communicate clearly and frequently during this
stage
Act decisively rather than planning endlessly
‫ﯾﻌﺗﺑر اﻻﻧﺗﻘﺎل ﻣن اﻟﺗﺧطﯾط إﻟﻰ اﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺑﺎرزة‬
‫ ووﺿﻊ‬، ‫ واﺗﺧﺎذ اﻹﺟراءات‬، ‫ ﺗﺑدأ ﻓﻲ اﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرارات‬، ‫أﺛﻧﺎء اﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ‬
‫ﺧططك ﻣوﺿﻊ اﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ‬
‫اﻟﺗواﺻل ﺑوﺿوح وﺑﺷﻛل ﻣﺗﻛرر ﺧﻼل ھذه اﻟﻣرﺣﻠﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺗﺻرف ﺑﺷﻛل ﺣﺎﺳم ﺑدﻻً ﻣن اﻟﺗﺧطﯾط ﺑﻼ ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬
Implementing the Solution
Guidelines for implementing a solution:
Ø Get approval from the problem owner
Ø Develop a plan
Ø Notify stakeholders
Ø Anticipate opposition
Ø Take action
Ø :‫إرﺷﺎدات ﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﺣل‬
Ø ‫اﻟﺣﺻول ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣواﻓﻘﺔ ﻣن ﻣﺎﻟك اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﺗطوﯾر ﺧطﺔ‬
Ø ‫إﺧطﺎر أﺻﺣﺎب اﻟﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﺗوﻗﻊ اﻟﻣﻌﺎرﺿﺔ‬
Ø ‫أﺑدي ﻓﻌل‬
Monitoring and Managing the
Solution
Most solutions involve related choices, tasks, and
the participation of others
Managers, coworkers, and stakeholders expect
you to deal professionally and competently with
interruptions, delays, and unexpected events
Planning for and identifying trouble quickly helps
you minimize disruption and problems
‫ﺗﺗﺿﻣن ﻣﻌظم اﻟﺣﻠول اﻟﺧﯾﺎرات واﻟﻣﮭﺎم وﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ اﻵﺧرﯾن‬
‫ﯾﺗوﻗﻊ ﻣﻧك اﻟﻣدراء وزﻣﻼء اﻟﻌﻣل وأﺻﺣﺎب اﻟﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﺑﻛﻔﺎءة‬
‫واﺣﺗراف ﻣﻊ اﻻﻧﻘطﺎﻋﺎت واﻟﺗﺄﺧﯾرات واﻷﺣداث ﻏﯾر اﻟﻣﺗوﻗﻌﺔ‬
‫ﯾﺳﺎﻋد اﻟﺗﺧطﯾط ﻟﻠﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ وﺗﺣدﯾدھﺎ ﺑﺳرﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻠﯾل اﻻﺿطراﺑﺎت‬
‫واﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬
Monitoring and Managing the
Solution
Guidelines for monitoring and managing the
solution:
Ø Identify key variables
Ø Select an appropriate level of monitoring
Ø Involve others with the process
Ø Be persistent
Ø Make corrections promptly
Ø :‫ﻣﺑﺎدئ ﺗوﺟﯾﮭﯾﺔ ﻟرﺻد وإدارة اﻟﺣل‬
Ø ‫ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻟﻣﺗﻐﯾرات اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﺣدد ﻣﺳﺗوى ﻣﻧﺎﺳب ﻣن اﻟﻣراﻗﺑﺔ‬
Ø ‫إﺷراك اﻵﺧرﯾن ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﻛن ﻣﺛﺎﺑرا‬
Ø ‫ﺟﻌل اﻟﺗﺻﺣﯾﺣﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻔور‬
Monitoring and Managing the
Solution
Levels of monitoring ‫ﻣﺳﺗوﯾﺎت اﻟﻣراﻗﺑﺔ‬
Verifying the Solution
Expect surprises during implementation
Stay involved with the project and make necessary
corrections along the way
Ask yourself and others:
Ø How well is the solution working
Ø How realistic are the objectives
Ø What is not working as expected
Ø ‫ﺗوﻗﻊ اﻟﻣﻔﺎﺟﺂت أﺛﻧﺎء اﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ‬
Ø ‫اﺑق ﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺷروع وﻗم ﺑﺈﺟراء اﻟﺗﺻﺣﯾﺣﺎت اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫طول اﻟطرﯾق‬
Ø :‫اﺳﺄل ﻧﻔﺳك واﻵﺧرﯾن‬
Ø ‫ﻣﺎ ﻣدى ﻧﺟﺎح اﻟﺣل‬
Ø ‫ﻣﺎ ﻣدى واﻗﻌﯾﺔ اﻷھداف‬
Ø ‫ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﯾﻌﻣل ﻛﻣﺎ ھو ﻣﺗوﻗﻊ‬
Verifying the Solution
Do’s and Don’ts of verifying a solution:
Ø Define success
Ø Test your solution
Ø Avoid the problem in the future
Ø Learn from the process
Ø Take credit for your success
Ø :‫ﻣﺎ ﯾﺟب ﻓﻌﻠﮫ وﻣﺎ ﻻ ﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﻓﻌﻠﮫ ﻟﻠﺗﺣﻘق ﻣن اﻟﺣل‬
Ø ‫ﺣدد اﻟﻧﺟﺎح‬
Ø ‫اﺧﺗﺑر اﻟﺣل اﻟﺧﺎص ﺑك‬
Ø ‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل‬
Ø ‫ﺗﻌﻠم ﻣن ھذه اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﺧذ اﻟﻔﺿل ﻓﻲ ﻧﺟﺎﺣك‬
Using Adaptive Techniques
Adaptive techniques involve a combination
of intuition, logic, and common sense
Adaptive techniques are less precise than
traditional problem-solving methods, but
are appropriate in many cases
‫ﺗﺗﺿﻣن اﻟﺗﻘﻧﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ ﻣزﯾ ًﺟﺎ ﻣن اﻟﺣدس واﻟﻣﻧطق واﻟﺣس‬
‫اﻟﺳﻠﯾم‬
‫ﺗﻌد اﻟﺗﻘﻧﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ أﻗل دﻗﺔ ﻣن طرق ﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺔ‬
‫ وﻟﻛﻧﮭﺎ ﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺛﯾر ﻣن اﻟﺣﺎﻻت‬،
Using Adaptive Techniques
Do’s and Don’ts for adaptive techniques:
Ø Consider when to use adaptive techniques
Ø Manage by exception
Ø Stagger your decisions
Ø Hedge your bets
Ø Delay or defer a solution
Ø :‫ﻣﺎ ﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﻓﻌﻠﮫ وﻣﺎ ﻻ ﯾﺟب ﻓﻌﻠﮫ ﻟﻠﺗﻘﻧﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﺿﻊ ﻓﻲ اﻋﺗﺑﺎرك وﻗت اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻘﻧﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫إدارة ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺗﺛﻧﺎء‬
Ø ‫ارﺑﺎك ﻗراراﺗك‬
Ø ‫اﻟﺗﺣوط اﻟرھﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑك‬
Ø ‫ﺗﺄﺧﯾر أو ﺗﺄﺟﯾل اﻟﺣل‬
Using Adaptive Techniques
Appropriate times to use adaptive techniques:
Ø You have a limited amount of time to work
Ø An exhaustive analysis is not needed
Ø The risks are minimal and downside costs are
low
Ø The solution is easily reversible
Ø :‫اﻷوﻗﺎت اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺔ ﻻﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻘﻧﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﻟدﯾك وﻗت ﻣﺣدود ﻟﻠﻌﻣل‬
Ø ‫ﻟﯾﺳت ھﻧﺎك ﺣﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺗﺣﻠﯾل ﺷﺎﻣل‬
Ø ‫ﻣﺧﺎطر اﻟﺣد اﻷدﻧﻰ واﻟﺗﻛﺎﻟﯾف اﻟﮭﺎﺑطﺔ ﻣﻧﺧﻔﺿﺔ‬
Ø ‫اﻟﺣل ﻗﺎﺑل ﻟﻠﻌﻛس ﺑﺳﮭوﻟﺔ‬
Developing Ethical Solutions
Ethics are standards of behavior that direct how people
should act
Ethics involves making moral decisions and choosing
between right and wrong
When applied to problem solving, ethical behavior leads to
appropriate decisions, not necessarily the optimal ones
Consider situations from an ethical, as well as a practical,
perspective
‫اﻷﺧﻼق ھﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر اﻟﺳﻠوك اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗوﺟﮫ ﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ ﺗﺻرف اﻟﻧﺎس‬
‫اﻷﺧﻼق ﯾﻧطوي ﻋﻠﻰ اﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرارات اﻷﺧﻼﻗﯾﺔ واﻻﺧﺗﯾﺎر ﺑﯾن اﻟﺻواب واﻟﺧطﺄ‬
، ‫ ﯾؤدي اﻟﺳﻠوك اﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ إﻟﻰ اﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرارات اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺔ‬، ‫ﻋﻧد ﺗطﺑﯾﻘﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬
‫وﻟﯾس ﺑﺎﻟﺿرورة اﻟﻘرارات اﻟﻣﺛﻠﻰ‬
‫ ﻓﺿﻼ ﻋن اﻟﻧﺎﺣﯾﺔ اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬، ‫اﻟﻧظر ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺎﻻت ﻣن ﻣﻧظور أﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬
Developing Ethical Solutions
Guidelines for developing ethical
solutions:
Ø Identify ethical issues
Ø Compare costs and benefits
Ø Consider other people
Ø Serve broad interests
Ø Be true to yourself
Technology @ Work: Mashups
A mashup is a Web application that combines
features or information from more than one source
Businesses are using mashups to develop views
of information that aid in decision making
Business mashups typically combine data from
internal and public sources, and publish the results
within the company for employees to use
Mashup ‫ھو ﺗطﺑﯾق وﯾب ﯾﺟﻣﻊ ﻣﯾزات أو ﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت ﻣن أﻛﺛر ﻣن‬
‫ﻣﺻدر واﺣد‬
‫ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت ﺗطﺑﯾق‬mashups ‫ﻟﺗطوﯾر وﺟﮭﺎت ﻧظر اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت‬
‫اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺳﺎﻋد ﻓﻲ اﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرار‬
‫ﻋﺎدة ً ﻣﺎ ﺗﺟﻣﻊ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎت دﻣﺞ اﻟﺗطﺑﯾﻘﺎت ﺑﯾن اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻣن اﻟﻣﺻﺎدر اﻟداﺧﻠﯾﺔ‬
‫ وﺗﻧﺷر اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ داﺧل اﻟﺷرﻛﺔ ﻟﯾﺳﺗﺧدﻣﮭﺎ اﻟﻣوظﻔون‬، ‫واﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
Technology @ Work: Mashups
Masher, an online tool for creating mashups
Masher ‫ أداة ﻋﺑر اﻹﻧﺗرﻧت ﻹﻧﺷﺎء ﺗطﺑﯾﻘﺎت‬،mashups
Summary
Gather relevant data and analyze it to find trends, indicators,
and other related information
Develop alternative solutions
Evaluate all options
Implementation is a milestone step in the problem solving
process
Carefully monitor and manage the implemented solution
‫اﺟﻣﻊ اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ذات اﻟﺻﻠﺔ وﺣﻠﻠﮭﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﺛور ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺗﺟﺎھﺎت واﻟﻣؤﺷرات واﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت‬
‫اﻷﺧرى ذات اﻟﺻﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺗطوﯾر ﺣﻠول ﺑدﯾﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﯾﯾم ﻛل اﻟﺧﯾﺎرات‬
‫اﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﺧطوة ھﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ ﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬
‫ﻣراﻗﺑﺔ وإدارة اﻟﺣل اﻟﻣﻧﻔذ ﺑﻌﻧﺎﯾﺔ‬
Summary
Verify the solution and expect surprises
Use adaptive techniques when
appropriate
Consider ethics as you develop
solutions
‫ﺗﺣﻘق ﻣن اﻟﺣل وﺗوﻗﻊ اﻟﻣﻔﺎﺟﺂت‬
‫اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻘﻧﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ ﻋﻧد اﻻﻗﺗﺿﺎء‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻓﻲ اﻋﺗﺑﺎرك اﻷﺧﻼق وأﻧت ﺗطور اﻟﺣﻠول‬
Part 3: Thinking Critically
Objectives
Understand critical thinking
Identify arguments
Assess the credibility of an argument
Explore weaknesses in an argument
‫ﻓﮭم اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻧﺎﻗد‬
‫اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺣﺟﺞ‬
‫ﺗﻘﯾﯾم ﻣﺻداﻗﯾﺔ اﻟﺣﺟﺔ‬
‫اﺳﺗﻛﺷﺎف ﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﺿﻌف ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺟﺔ‬
Objectives
Overcome obstacles to critical
thinking
Avoid deductive reasoning fallacies
Avoid inductive reasoning fallacies
Become a critical thinker
‫اﻟﺗﻐﻠب ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻘﺑﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣول دون اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻧﻘدي‬
‫ﺗﺟﻧب ﻣﻐﺎﻟطﺎت اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎج اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎﺟﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺟﻧب ﻣﻐﺎﻟطﺎت اﻻﺳﺗﻘراء اﻻﺳﺗﻘراﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻛن ﻣﻔﻛرا ﻧﻘدﯾﺎ‬
Understanding Critical Thinking
Critical thinking requires analysis,
evaluation, discipline, and rigor
The goal of critical thinking is often to
improve choices and reduce the risk
of adopting or acting on a flawed
assumption
‫ﻓﮭم اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻧﺎﻗد‬
‫ﯾﺗطﻠب اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻧﺎﻗد اﻟﺗﺣﻠﯾل واﻟﺗﻘﯾﯾم واﻻﻧﺿﺑﺎط‬
‫واﻟدﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟ ًﺑﺎ ﻣﺎ ﯾﻛون ھدف اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻧﻘدي ھو ﺗﺣﺳﯾن‬
‫اﻻﺧﺗﯾﺎرات واﻟﺣد ﻣن ﻣﺧﺎطر ﺗﺑﻧﻲ أو اﻟﻌﻣل ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻓﺗراض ﻣﻌﯾوب‬
Understanding Critical Thinking
Ask the following questions to
improve your critical thinking:
Ø What is critical thinking?
Ø What is a claim?
Ø What is an issue?
Ø What is an argument?
Ø What is the difference between facts
and opinions?
Understanding Critical Thinking
Steps in critical thinking
Understanding Critical Thinking
Facts and opinions
Identifying Arguments
To organize your ideas when
thinking critically, you identify,
construct, and evaluate arguments,
which are statements or
explanations that support your ideas
Your premise is what you claim or
content
The other element of an argument is
the conclusion
‫اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺣﺟﺞ‬
‫ ﯾﻣﻛن‬، ‫ﻟﺗﻧظﯾم أﻓﻛﺎرك ﻋﻧد اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر ﺑﺷﻛل ﻧﻘدي‬
‫ واﻟﺗﻲ ھﻲ‬، ‫ وﺗﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﺣﺟﺞ‬، ‫ وﺑﻧﺎء‬، ‫ﺗﺣدﯾد‬
‫ﻋﺑﺎرات أو ﺗﻔﺳﯾرات ﺗدﻋم أﻓﻛﺎرك اﻟﻔرﺿﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑك ھﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺗدﻋﻲ أو ﻣﺣﺗوى‬
‫اﻟﻌﻧﺻراﻵﺧر ﻣن اﻟﺣﺟﺔ ھو اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎج‬
Identifying Arguments
Do’s and Don’ts for identifying
arguments:
Ø Identify the arguments
Ø Look for argument indicators
Ø Differentiate between an argument and
an assertion
Ø Recognize deductive arguments
Ø Recognized inductive arguments
‫اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺣﺟﺞ‬
:‫ھل ھو و ﻻ ﻟﺗﺣدﯾد اﻟﺣﺟﺞ‬
‫اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺣﺟﺞ‬
‫اﺑﺣث ﻋن ﻣؤﺷرات اﻟﺟدال‬
‫اﻟﺗﻔرﯾق ﺑﯾن اﻟﺣﺟﺔ واﻟﺗﺄﻛﯾد‬
‫اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺣﺟﺞ اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎﺟﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺣﺟﺞ اﻻﺳﺗﻘراﺋﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻌﺗرف ﺑﮭﺎ‬
Assessing the Credibility of an
Argument
Steps in assessing the credibility of
an argument:
Ø Consider the validity of the argument
Ø Make sure the argument is sound
Ø Assess the credibility of the source
Ø Consider reasons based on authority
Ø Compare the argument to your
background knowledge
‫ﺗﻘﯾﯾم ﻣﺻداﻗﯾﺔ اﻟﺣﺟﺔ‬
‫ اﻟﻧظر ﻓﻲ‬:‫ﺧطوات ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﯾﯾم ﻣﺻداﻗﯾﺔ اﻟﺣﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺻﺣﺔ اﻟﺣﺟﺔ ﺗﺄﻛد ﻣن أن اﻟﺣﺟﺔ ﺳﻠﯾﻣﺔ ﺗﻘﯾﯾم‬
‫ﻣﺻداﻗﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺻدر اﻟﻧظر ﻓﻲ اﻷﺳﺑﺎب اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻟﺳﻠطﺔ ﻗﺎرن اﻟﺣﺟﺔ ﺑﻣﻌرﻓﺗك اﻟﺧﻠﻔﯾﺔ‬
Assessing the Credibility of an
Argument‫ﺗﻘﯾﯾم ﻣﺻداﻗﯾﺔ اﻟﺣﺟﺔ‬
Assess arguments to determine how
credible they are
You determine whether an argument
is plausible, authentic, or convincing
by evaluating the validity and strength
of the supporting evidence
‫ﺗﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﺣﺟﺞ ﻟﺗﺣدﯾد ﻣدى ﻣﺻداﻗﯾﺗﮭﺎ‬
‫ﯾﻣﻛﻧك ﺗﺣدﯾد ﻣﺎ إذا ﻛﺎﻧت اﻟﺣﺟﺔ ﻣﻌﻘوﻟﺔ أو ﺻﺣﯾﺣﺔ أو‬
‫ﻣﻘﻧﻌﺔ ﻣن ﺧﻼل ﺗﻘﯾﯾم ﺻﺣﺔ وﻗوة اﻷدﻟﺔ اﻟداﻋﻣﺔ‬
Argument ‫اﺳﺗﻛﺷﺎف ﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﺿﻌف ﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻟوﺳﯾطﺔ‬
All arguments have some
weaknesses
Avoid taking an all-or-nothing
approach to arguments
Assess each argument according to
its strengths and weaknesses
‫ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﺣﺟﺞ ﻟدﯾﮭﺎ ﺑﻌض ﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﺿﻌف‬
‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﺗﺑﺎع ﻧﮭﺞ اﻟﻛل أو ﻻ ﺷﻲء ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺟﺞ‬
‫ﺗﻘﯾﯾم ﻛل ﺣﺟﺔ وﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﻘوة واﻟﺿﻌف ﻓﯾﮭﺎ‬
Exploring Weaknesses in an
Argument
Do’s and Don’ts for exploring
weaknesses in an argument:
Ø Consider how to test the claims and
premises
Ø Evaluation the relevance
Ø Look for dubious assumptions
Ø Compare the argument to other data,
observations, and ideas
Ø Identify alternative explanations
‫اﺳﺗﻛﺷﺎف ﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﺿﻌف ﻓﻲ اﻟوﺳﯾطﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﯾﺟب ﻓﻌﻠﮫ وﻣﺎ ﻻ ﯾﺟب ﻓﻌﻠﮫ ﻻﺳﺗﻛﺷﺎف ﻧﻘﺎط‬
‫ ﻓﻛر ﻓﻲ ﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ اﺧﺗﺑﺎر‬:‫اﻟﺿﻌف ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺟﺔ‬
‫اﻻدﻋﺎءات واﻟﻣﺑﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﻣﻼءﺋﻣﮫ‬
‫اﺑﺣث ﻋن اﻓﺗراﺿﺎت ﻣﺷﻛوك ﻓﯾﮭﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺎرن ﺑﯾن اﻟﺣﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت واﻟﻣﻼﺣظﺎت واﻷﻓﻛﺎر‬
‫ﺗﺣدﯾد‬
‫اﻷﺧرى‬
‫اﻟﺗﻔﺳﯾرات اﻟﺑدﯾﻠﺔ‬
Overcoming Obstacles to Critical
Thinking
Learn to recognize typical obstacles
to critical thinking so you can
anticipate and work through them
Being flexible, adaptable, and openminded when working with others
helps you avoid egocentric thinking
‫اﻟﺗﻐﻠب ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻘﺑﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣول دون اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻧﺎﻗد‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﯾﺟب ﻓﻌﻠﮫ وﻣﺎ ﻻ ﯾﺟب ﻓﻌﻠﮫ ﻻﺳﺗﻛﺷﺎف ﻧﻘﺎط‬
:‫اﻟﺿﻌف ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺟﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻛر ﻓﻲ ﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ اﺧﺗﺑﺎر اﻻدﻋﺎءات‬
‫ﺗﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﻣﻼءﻣﮫ‬
‫اﺑﺣث ﻋن اﻓﺗراﺿﺎت ﻣﺷﻛوك ﻓﯾﮭﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺎرن ﺑﯾن اﻟﺣﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت واﻟﻣﻼﺣظﺎت‬
‫واﻷﻓﻛﺎر اﻷﺧرى‬
‫ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻟﺗﻔﺳﯾرات اﻟﺑدﯾﻠﺔ‬
Overcoming Obstacles to Critical
Thinking
Do’s and Don’ts for overcoming
obstacles to critical thinking:
Ø Avoid egocentric thinking
Ø Be aware of your social conditioning
Ø Identify outliers
Ø Avoid normalization
Ø Respect your emotions
‫اﻟﺗﻐﻠب ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻘﺑﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣول دون اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻧﺎﻗد‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﯾﻔﻌل وﻣﺎ ﻻ ﯾﺟب ﻓﻌﻠﮫ ﻟﻠﺗﻐﻠب ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻘﺑﺎت‬
:‫اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗواﺟﮫ اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻧﻘدي‬
‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻷﻧﺎﻧﻲ ﻛن ﻋﻠﻰ دراﯾﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻛﯾف‬
‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ اﻟﺧﺎص ﺑك ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻟﻘﯾم اﻟﻣﺗطرﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﻟﺗطﺑﯾﻊ اﺣﺗرم ﻋواطﻔك‬
Overcoming Obstacles to Critical
Thinking
Creative and critical thinking ‫اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر‬
‫اﻹﺑداﻋﻲ واﻟﻧﻘدي‬
Avoiding Deductive Reasoning
Fallacies
A fallacy is an invalid argument that is
presented so that it appears valid
Skilled communicators can make
flawed arguments sound reasonable
Critical thinkers should consider the
premises and conclusions with
special care
Deductive arguments can have flaws
that make the arguments invalid
‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﻻﺳﺗدﻻل اﻟﻣﻧطق اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎﺟﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻣﻐﺎﻟطﺔ ھﻲ ﺣﺟﺔ ﻏﯾر ﺻﺣﯾﺣﺔ ﺗُﻌرض ﺑﺣﯾث‬
‫ﺗﺑدو ﺻﺎﻟﺣﺔ‬
‫ﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﻠﺗواﺻل اﻟﻣﮭرة ﺟﻌل اﻟﺣﺟﺞ اﻟﻣﻌﯾﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻠﯾﻣﺔ ﻣﻌﻘوﻟﺔ‬
‫ﯾﺟب ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣﻔﻛرﯾن اﻟﻧﻘدﯾﯾن اﻟﻧظر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺑﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫واﻻﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎﺟﺎت ﺑﻌﻧﺎﯾﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﺣﺗوي اﻟﺣﺟﺞ اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎﺟﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﯾوب‬
‫ﺗﺟﻌل اﻟﺣﺟﺞ ﺑﺎطﻠﺔ‬
‫‪Avoiding Deductive Reasoning‬‬
‫‪Fallacies‬‬
‫‪Guidelines for avoiding deductive‬‬
‫‪reasoning fallacies:‬‬
‫‪Ø Avoid the slippery slope‬‬
‫‪Ø Be aware of false dilemmas‬‬
‫‪Ø Straighten out circular reasoning‬‬
‫‪Ø Clear up equivocation‬‬
‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﻻﺳﺗدﻻل اﻟﻣﻧطق اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎﺟﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺑﺎدئ ﺗوﺟﯾﮭﯾﺔ ﻟﺗﺟﻧب ﻣﻐﺎﻟطﺎت اﻻﺳﺗدﻻل‬
:‫اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎﺟﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﻟﻣﻧﺣدر اﻟزﻟق‬
‫ﻛن ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﯾﻧﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻣﻌﺿﻼت اﻟزاﺋﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺻوﯾب اﻻﺳﺗدﻻل اﻟداﺋره‬
‫ﻣﺳﺢ ﻣوارﺑﺔ‬
Avoiding Inductive Reasoning
Fallacies
The conclusions of an inductive
argument are only as good as the
quantity and quality of the premises
Inductive arguments are prone to
fallacies
The premises must contain sufficient
evidence, and the conclusion must fit
the facts
‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﻻﺳﺗدﻻل اﻻﺳﺗﻘراﺋﻲ ﻣﻐﺎﻟطﺎت‬
‫اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎﺟﺎت ﻣن ﺣﺟﺔ ﺣﺛﻲ ھﻲ ﻓﻘط ﺟﯾدة ﻣﺛل‬
‫ﻛﻣﯾﺔ وﻧوﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺑﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺣﺟﺞ اﻻﺳﺗﻘراﺋﯾﺔ ھﻲ ﻋرﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﻐﺎﻟطﺎت‬
‫ﯾﺟب أن ﺗﺣﺗوي اﻟﻣﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ أدﻟﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﯾﺔ ‪ ،‬وﯾﺟب‬
‫أن ﺗﺗﻧﺎﺳب اﻟﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺣﻘﺎﺋق‬
‫‪Avoiding Inductive Reasoning‬‬
‫‪Fallacies‬‬
‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﻻﺳﺗدﻻل اﻻﺳﺗﻘراﺋﻲ ﻣﻐﺎﻟطﺎت‬
‫‪Do’s and Don’ts for avoiding inductive‬‬
‫‪reasoning fallacies:‬‬
‫‪Ø Avoid hasty generalizations‬‬
‫‪Ø Separate cause and effect‬‬
‫‪Ø Look for false causes‬‬
‫‪Ø Consider the composition‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﯾﻔﻌل وﻣﺎ ﯾﺟب ﺗﺟﻧﺑﮫ ﻟﺗﺟﻧب ﻣﻐﺎﻟطﺎت اﻻﺳﺗدﻻل ‪Ø‬‬
‫اﻻﺳﺗﻘراﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﺟﻧب اﻟﺗﻌﻣﯾﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﻌﺟﻠﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺳﺑب واﻟﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ اﻟﻣﻧﻔﺻﻠﺔ ‪Ø‬‬
‫اﺑﺣث ﻋن أﺳﺑﺎب ﺧﺎطﺋﺔ ‪Ø‬‬
‫اﻟﻧظر ﻓﻲ ﺗﻛوﯾﻧﮭﺎ ‪Ø‬‬
Avoiding Inductive Reasoning
Fallacies
Hasty generalization‫اﻟﺗﻌﻣﯾم اﻟﻣﺗﺳرع‬
Becoming a Critical Thinker
Developing thinking and problemsolving skills is a gradual process that
requires conscious effort on your part
Changing thinking habits and
practices is a long-range project and
something you should commit to
throughout your life
‫إن ﺗﻧﻣﯾﺔ ﻣﮭﺎرات اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر وﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت ھﻲ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬
‫ﺗدرﯾﺟﯾﺔ ﺗﺗطﻠب ﻣﺟﮭودًا واﻋﯾًﺎ ﻣن ﺟﺎﻧﺑك ﺗﻐﯾﯾر ﻋﺎدات‬
‫وﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺎت اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر ھو ﻣﺷروع ﺑﻌﯾد اﻟﻣدى وﺷﻲء‬
‫ﯾﺟب ﻋﻠﯾك اﻻﻟﺗزام ﺑﮫ طوال ﺣﻲاﺗك‬
Becoming a Critical Thinker
Do’s and Don’ts for becoming a
critical thinker:
Ø Develop intellectual humility
Ø Be a critic, not a cynic
Ø Challenge your assumptions and beliefs
Ø Work through complex issues and
problems
Ø Have confidence in your reasoning
ability
‫ﺗﺻﺑﺢ ﻣﻔﻛرا ﻧﻘدﯾﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﯾﺟب ﻓﻌﻠﮫ وﻣﺎ ﻻ ﯾﺟب ﻓﻌﻠﮫ ھو أن ﺗﺻﺑﺢ‬
‫ ﺗطوﯾر اﻟﺗواﺿﻊ اﻟﻔﻛري‬:‫ﻣﻔﻛراً ﻧﻘد ًﯾﺎ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺧرا‬
‫ وﻟﯾس‬، ‫ﻛن ﻧﺎﻗدًا‬
ً
‫ﺗﺣدي اﻻﻓﺗراﺿﺎت واﻟﻣﻌﺗﻘدات اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑك اﻟﻌﻣل‬
‫ﺛق ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﻘﺿﺎﯾﺎ واﻟﻣﺷﺎﻛل اﻟﻣﻌﻘدة‬
‫ﻗدرﺗك ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر‬
Becoming a Critical Thinker
Critical thinking habits‫ﻋﺎدات اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻧﺎﻗد‬
Technology @ Work: Electronic
Books
An electronic book (e-book) is usually
a combination of a hardware device
you can hold in your hand and
software that allows you to read the
pages of a book
Some e-books are designed to be
used with mobile phones and smart
phones that can connect to the
Internet
‫ﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺎ @ اﻟﻌﻣل‪ :‬اﻟﻛﺗب اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺎدةً ﻣﺎ ﯾﻛون اﻟﻛﺗﺎب اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ )اﻟﻛﺗﺎب‬
‫اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ( ﻣزﯾ ًﺟﺎ ﻣن ﺟﮭﺎز ﯾﻣﻛﻧك ﺗﺛﺑﯾﺗﮫ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﯾدك وﺑراﻣﺟك ﯾﺳﻣﺢ ﻟك ﺑﻘراءة ﺻﻔﺣﺎت ﻛﺗﺎب ﺗم‬
‫ﺗﺻﻣﯾم ﺑﻌض اﻟﻛﺗب اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ ﻻﺳﺗﺧداﻣﮭﺎ ﻣﻊ‬
‫اﻟﮭواﺗف اﻟﻣﺣﻣوﻟﺔ واﻟﮭواﺗف اﻟذﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻣﻛﻧﮭﺎ‬
‫اﻻﺗﺻﺎل ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺗرﻧت‬
‫‪Technology @ Work: Electronic‬‬
‫‪Books‬‬
‫‪The most popular dedicated platform‬‬
‫‪for e-books is the Amazon Kindle‬‬
‫اﻟﻣﻧﺻﺔ اﻷﻛﺛر ﺷﻌﺑﯾﺔ ﻣﺧﺻﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻛﺗب اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ‬
Technology @ Work: Electronic
Books
Advantages and disadvantages of ebooks:
Ø Enhance research and thinking
Ø Provide a more engaging medium
Ø Require electronic device and software
Ø Change the reading experience
‫ ﺗﻌزﯾز اﻟﺑﺣث واﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر‬:‫ﻣزاﯾﺎ وﻋﯾوب اﻟﻛﺗب اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ‬
‫ﺗوﻓﯾر وﺳﯾﻠﺔ أﻛﺛر ﺟﺎذﺑﯾﺔ‬
ً
Ø ‫ﺟﮭﺎزا وﺑرﻣﺟﯾﺎت إﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ‬
‫ﯾﺗطﻠب‬
Ø ‫ﺗﻐﯾﯾر ﺗﺟرﺑﺔ اﻟﻘراءة‬
Summary
Critical thinking requires analysis,
evaluation, discipline, and rigor
To organize ideas when thinking
critically, you identify, construct, and
evaluate arguments
Assess arguments to determine how
credible they are
All arguments have weaknesses
‫ﻣﻠﺧص‬
‫ﯾﺗطﻠب اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻧﺎﻗد اﻟﺗﺣﻠﯾل واﻟﺗﻘﯾﯾم واﻻﻧﺿﺑﺎط‬
، ‫واﻟدﻗﺔ ﻟﺗﻧظﯾم اﻷﻓﻛﺎر ﻋﻧد اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر ﺑﺷﻛل ﻧﻘدي‬
‫ وﺗﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﺣﺟﺞ ﺗﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﺣﺟﺞ‬، ‫ ﺑﻧﺎء‬، ‫ﯾﻣﻛﻧك ﺗﺣدﯾد‬
‫ﻟﺗﺣدﯾد ﻣدى ﻣﺻداﻗﯾﺗﮭﺎ ﻛل اﻟﺣﺟﺞ ﻟﮭﺎ ﻧﻘﺎط‬
‫ﺿﻌف‬
Summary
You develop critical thinking as a skill
over time through practice and
repeated application
Deductive arguments can have flaws
that make the arguments invalid
The conclusions of an inductive
argument are only as good as the
quantity and quality of the premises
Developing thinking and problemsolving skills is a gradual process
‫ﻣﻠﺧص‬
‫ﯾﻣﻛﻧك ﺗطوﯾر اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻧﻘدي ﻛﻣﮭﺎرة ﻣﻊ ﻣرور‬
‫اﻟوﻗت ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺔ واﻟﺗطﺑﯾق اﻟﻣﺗﻛرر‬
‫ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﺣﺗوي اﻟﺣﺟﺞ اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎﺟﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﯾوب‬
‫ﺗﺟﻌل اﻟﺣﺟﺞ ﺑﺎطﻠﺔ اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎﺟﺎت ﻣن ﺣﺟﺔ ﺣﺛﻲ‬
‫ھﻲ ﻓﻘط ﺟﯾدة ﻣﺛل ﻛﻣﯾﺔ وﻧوﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﻧﻣﯾﺔ‬
‫ﻣﮭﺎرات اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر وﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت ھﻲ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬
‫ﺗدرﯾﺟﯾﺔ‬
‫‪Part 4: Group Decision Making and Problem Solving‬‬
Objectives ‫اﻻھداف‬
Understand group dynamics
Evolve from a group to a team
Use divergent thinking
Use convergent thinking
‫ﻓﮭم دﯾﻧﺎﻣﯾﻛﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺗطور ﻣن ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻓرﯾق‬
‫اﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﺗﺑﺎﻋدي‬
‫اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﻘﺎرب‬
Objectives ‫اﻻھداف‬
Reach closure
Avoid common group traps
Work with large groups
Build sustainable agreements
‫اﻟوﺻول إﻟﻰ اﻹﻏﻼق‬
‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﻟﻔﺧﺎخ اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت ﻛﺑﯾرة‬
‫ﺑﻧﺎء اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺎت ﻣﺳﺗداﻣﺔ‬
Understanding Group Dynamics
‫ﻓﮭم دﯾﻧﺎﻣﯾﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬
You cannot accomplish complex
tasks alone
Organizations use groups and teams
to make decisions, solve problems,
and accomplish goals
A group is made up of two or more
people who interact with each other,
share expectations and obligations,
and develop a common identity as a
group
‫ﻻ ﯾﻣﻛﻧك إﻧﺟﺎز اﻟﻣﮭﺎم اﻟﻣﻌﻘدة وﺣدھﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت واﻟﻔرق ﻻﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرارات وﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت وﺗﺣﻘﯾق اﻷھداف‬
‫ وﯾﺷﺗرﻛﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗوﻗﻌﺎت‬، ‫ﺗﺗﺄﻟف اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣن ﺷﺧﺻﯾن أو أﻛﺛر ﯾﺗﻔﺎﻋﻼن ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺿﮭﻣﺎ اﻟﺑﻌض‬
‫ وﯾطوران ھوﯾﺔ ﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ ﻛﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬، ‫واﻻﻟﺗزاﻣﺎت‬
Understanding Group Dynamics
‫ﻓﮭم دﯾﻧﺎﻣﯾﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬
Real groups have social or
professional bonds and common
interests, values, or backgrounds
The way that people work and interact
with each other is known as group
dynamics
‫اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت اﻟﺣﻘﯾﻘﯾﺔ ﻟدﯾﮭﺎ رواﺑط اﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ أو ﻣﮭﻧﯾﺔ‬
‫وﻣﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ أو ﻗﯾم أو ﺧﻠﻔﯾﺎت‬
‫ﺗُﻌرف اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻌﻣل ﺑﮭﺎ اﻷﺷﺧﺎص وﯾﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠون‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺿﮭم اﻟﺑﻌض ﺑﺎﺳم دﯾﻧﺎﻣﯾﻛﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬
Understanding Group Dynamics
‫ﻓﮭم دﯾﻧﺎﻣﯾﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬
Organizations are embracing group
projects and teamwork for the
following reasons:
‫ﺗﺗﺑﻧﻰ اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت ﻣﺷﺎرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ واﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬
:‫ﻟﻸﺳﺑﺎب اﻟﺗﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬
Ø Diversity ‫اﻟﺗﻧوع‬
Ø Rich experience base ‫ﻗﺎﻋدة ﺗﺟرﺑﺔ ﻏﻧﯾﺔ‬
Ø Enhanced organizational memory ‫ﺗﻌزﯾز‬
‫اﻟذاﻛرة اﻟﺗﻧظﯾﻣﯾﺔ‬
Ø Error detection ‫اﻛﺗﺷﺎف اﻟﺧطﺄ‬
Ø More creative solutions ‫اﻟﻣزﯾد ﻣن اﻟﺣﻠول‬
‫اﻻﺑداﻋﯾﺔ‬
Ø Greater acceptance of decisions and
outcomes ‫ﻗﺑول اﻛﺑر اﻟﻘرارات و اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬
Evolving from a Group to a Team
‫اﻟﺗطور ﻣن ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻓرﯾق‬
People often form themselves into groups,
but they may or may not work well together
‫ ﻟﻛﻧﮭم ﻗد ﯾﻌﻣﻠون أو ﻻ ﯾﻌﻣﻠون ﺑﺷﻛل ﺟﯾد‬، ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺑﺎ ﻣﺎ ﯾﺷﻛل اﻟﻧﺎس أﻧﻔﺳﮭم ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت‬
A group that is working well together is
functioning as a team ‫ﺗﻌﻣل اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﻣل ﺑﺷﻛل ﺟﯾد ﻣﻌًﺎ‬
‫ﻛﻔرﯾق‬
A team is a group of people who organize
themselves to work cooperatively on a
common objective ‫اﻟﻔرﯾق ھو ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣن اﻷﺷﺧﺎص اﻟذﯾن‬
‫ﯾﻧظﻣون أﻧﻔﺳﮭم ﻟﻠﻌﻣل ﺑﺷﻛل ﺗﻌﺎوﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ھدف ﻣﺷﺗرك‬
Most groups pass through stages of
cohesion and understanding before they do
useful work ‫ﺗﻣر ﻣﻌظم اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت ﻋﺑر ﻣراﺣل اﻟﺗﻣﺎﺳك واﻟﻔﮭم ﻗﺑل اﻟﻘﯾﺎم‬
‫ﺑﻌﻣل ﻣﻔﯾد‬
Evolving from a Group to a Team
‫اﻟﺗطور ﻣن ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻓرﯾق‬
Guidelines for evolving from a group
to a team:
:‫إرﺷﺎدات ﻟﻠﺗطوﯾر ﻣن ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻓرﯾق‬
Ø Expect socializing
Ø Encourage organizing and forming
Ø Facilitate information sharing and
processing
Ø Collaborate to solve problems
Ø ‫ﻧﺗوﻗﻊ اﻟﺗﻧﺷﺋﺔ اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﺗﺷﺟﯾﻊ اﻟﺗﻧظﯾم واﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾل‬
Ø ‫ﺗﺳﮭﯾل ﺗﺑﺎدل اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت وﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺗﮭﺎ‬
Ø ‫اﻟﺗﻌﺎون ﻟﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﺎﻛل‬
Using Divergent Thinking
‫اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﺗﺑﺎﻋدي‬
The collective knowledge of a group
is greater than that of a single person
‫اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ ﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ أﻛﺑر ﻣن ﻣﻌرﻓﺔ ﺷﺧص واﺣد‬
Groups seldom behave creatively on
their own‫ﻧﺎدرا ﻣﺎ ﺗﺗﺻرف اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت ﺑطرﯾﻘﺔ إﺑداﻋﯾﺔ ﺑﻣﻔردھﺎ‬
The team leader or a facilitator needs to
engage the group in activities that foster
creativity and collaboration ‫ﯾﺣﺗﺎج ﻗﺎﺋد اﻟﻔرﯾق أو أﺣد‬
‫اﻟﻣﯾﺳرﯾن إﻟﻰ إﺷراك اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻷﻧﺷطﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌزز اﻹﺑداع واﻟﺗﻌﺎون‬
Divergent thinking describes thought
processes or methods used to
generate ideas ‫ﯾﺻف اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﺑﺎﻋد ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر أو‬
‫اﻟطرق اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدﻣﺔ ﻟﺗوﻟﯾد اﻷﻓﻛﺎر‬
Using Divergent Thinking
‫اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﺗﺑﺎﻋدي‬
Divergent thinking techniques
generate many ideas that are often
not related to one another
Divergent thinking is usually
spontaneous, free flowing, and
unorganized
‫ﺗوﻟد أﺳﺎﻟﯾب اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﺑﺎﯾﻧﺔ اﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن اﻷﻓﻛﺎر اﻟﺗﻲ ﻻ ﺗرﺗﺑط ﻓﻲ اﻟﻐﺎﻟب‬
‫ﺑﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ اﻟﺑﻌض‬
‫ وﻏﯾر ﻣﻧظم‬، ‫ﺣرا‬
ً ‫ وﺗدﻓﻘًﺎ‬، ‫ﻋﺎدة ﻣﺎ ﯾﻛون اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﺑﺎﻋد ﻋﻔوﯾًﺎ‬
Using Divergent Thinking
‫اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﺗﺑﺎﻋدي‬
Techniques for divergent
thinking:‫ﺗﻘﻧﯾﺎت ﻟﻠﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﺑﺎﻋد‬
Ø Brainstorming
Ø Group mind mapping
Ø Free writing
Ø Journaling
Ø ‫اﻟﻌﺻف اﻟذھﻧﻲ‬
Ø ‫ﺗﻌﯾﯾن ﻋﻘل اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬
Ø ‫اﻟﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﻣﺟﺎﻧﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﯾوﻣﯾﺎت‬
Using Divergent Thinking
Group mind map
Using Convergent Thinking
‫اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﻘﺎرب‬
Divergent thinking is used in the early
stages of problem solving
Convergent thinking techniques
narrow the options to a manageable
set
‫ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﺑﺎﻋد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣراﺣل اﻟﻣﺑﻛرة ﻣن ﺣل‬
‫اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠل ﺗﻘﻧﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺔ اﻟﺧﯾﺎرات إﻟﻰ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﯾﻣﻛن‬
‫اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﯾﮭﺎ‬
Using Convergent Thinking
‫اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﻘﺎرب‬
Guidelines for using convergent
thinking: ‫ﻣﺑﺎدئ ﺗوﺟﯾﮭﯾﺔ ﻻﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﻘﺎرب‬
Ø Cull your ideas
Ø Identify the pros and cons
Ø Perform a cost-benefit analysis
Ø Create an impact analysis
Ø Use reverse brainstorming
Ø ‫إﻣﻸ أﻓﻛﺎرك‬
Ø ‫ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻻﯾﺟﺎﺑﯾﺎت واﻟﺳﻠﺑﯾﺎت‬
Ø ‫ﻗم ﺑﺈﺟراء ﺗﺣﻠﯾل ﻟﻠﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ واﻟﻌﺎﺋد‬
Ø ‫إﻧﺷﺎء ﺗﺣﻠﯾل اﻟﺗﺄﺛﯾر‬
Ø ‫اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﻌﺻف اﻟذھﻧﻲ اﻟﻌﻛﺳﻲ‬
Using Convergent Thinking
Impact analysis ‫ﺗﺣﻠﯾل اﻷﺛر‬
Reaching Closure
‫اﻟوﺻول إﻟﻰ اﻹﻏﻼق‬
Some groups are designed to be ongoing
concerns that move from one issue to the
next ‫ﺗم ﺗﺻﻣﯾم ﺑﻌض اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت ﻟﺗﻛون ﻣﺧﺎوف ﻣﺳﺗﻣرة‬
‫ﺗﻧﺗﻘل ﻣن ﻗﺿﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ أﺧرى‬
Some groups address a particular concern
and are disbanded once the problem is
solved ‫ﺑﻌض اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت ﺗﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ وﯾﺗم‬
‫ﺣﻠﮭﺎ ﺑﻣﺟرد ﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ‬
It’s common for a group to artificially
prolong a process and not reach closure as
efficiently as it could ‫ﻣن اﻟﺷﺎﺋﻊ أن ﺗﻘوم ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺈطﺎﻟﺔ أﻣد اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺔ ﺑﺷﻛل ﻣﺻطﻧﻊ وﻋدم اﻟوﺻول إﻟﻰ اﻹﻏﻼق ﺑﺄﻛﺑر ﻗدر‬
‫ﻣﻣﻛن ﻣن اﻟﻛﻔﺎءة‬
A team leader needs to provide direction to
help the group develop closure ‫ﯾﺣﺗﺎج ﻗﺎﺋد اﻟﻔرﯾق إﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺗوﻓﯾر اﻟﺗوﺟﯾﮫ ﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدة اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗطوﯾر اﻹﻏﻼق‬
Reaching Closure
‫اﻟوﺻول اﻟﻰ اﻻﻏﻼق‬
Tips for reaching closure:
‫ﻧﺻﺎﺋﺢ ﻟﻠوﺻول اﻟﻰ اﻻﻏﻼق‬
Ø Use a command style
Ø Use a consultative approach
Ø Use consensus decision making
Ø Select appropriate voting methods
Ø ‫اﺳﺗﺧدم ﻧﻣط أﻣر‬
Ø ‫اﺳﺗﺧدام ﻧﮭﺞ اﺳﺗﺷﺎري‬
Ø ‫اﺳﺗﺧدام ﺻﻧﻊ اﻟﻘرار ﺑﺎﻹﺟﻣﺎع‬
Ø ‫ﺣدد طرق اﻟﺗﺻوﯾت اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺔ‬
Avoiding Common Group Traps
‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﻟﻔﺧﺎخ اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬
Some groups fall into traps that slow
progress and distract members from
the problem-solving objectives
The difficulties of participating in or
managing a group are different from
the challenges of solving problems on
your own
‫ﺗﻘﻊ ﺑﻌض اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺧﺎخ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺑطﺊ اﻟﺗﻘدم وﺗﺷﺗت‬
‫اﻧﺗﺑﺎه اﻷﻋﺿﺎء ﻋن أھداف ﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬
‫ﺗﺧﺗﻠف ﺻﻌوﺑﺎت اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ أو إدارﺗﮭﺎ ﻋن‬
‫ﺗﺣدﯾﺎت ﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت ﺑﻧﻔﺳك‬
Avoiding Common Group Traps
‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﻟﻔﺧﺎخ اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬
Guidelines for avoiding common
group traps: ‫إرﺷﺎدات ﻟﺗﺟﻧب اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﻔﺧﺎخ‬
‫اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬
Ø Organize the overhead
Ø Watch out for stress
Ø Avoid the Superman complex
Ø Look out for groupthink
Ø ‫ﺗﻧظﯾم اﻟﻧﻔﻘﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
Ø ‫اﺣﺗرس ﻣن اﻹﺟﮭﺎد‬
Ø ‫ﺗﺟﻧب ﻣﺟﻣﻊ ﺳوﺑرﻣﺎن‬
Ø ‫اﺑﺣث ﻋن ﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬
Working with Large Groups
‫اﻟﻌﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت ﻛﺑﯾرة‬
Large groups and those with members
in more than one location require extra
time for planning, organizing, and
managing ‫ﺗﺗطﻠب اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت اﻟﻛﺑﯾرة وﺗﻠك اﻟﺗﻲ ﻟدﯾﮭﺎ‬
‫أﻋﺿﺎء ﻓﻲ أﻛﺛر ﻣن ﻣوﻗﻊ وﻗﺗًﺎ إﺿﺎﻓﯾًﺎ ﻟﻠﺗﺧطﯾط واﻟﺗﻧظﯾم‬
‫واﻹدارة‬
As companies grow, merge, and evolve,
they use large and geographically
distributed groups more often ‫وﻣﻊ ﻧﻣو‬
‫ ﻓﺈﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت ﻛﺑﯾرة‬، ‫اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت ودﻣﺟﮭﺎ وﺗطوﯾرھﺎ‬
‫وﻣوزﻋﺔ ﺟﻐراﻓ ًﯾﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺛﯾر ﻣن اﻷﺣﯾﺎن‬
Managing and/or participating in a large
group requires good communication
skills ‫ أو اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻛﺑﯾرة‬/ ‫ﺗﺗطﻠب إدارة و‬
‫ﻣﮭﺎرات ﺗواﺻل ﺟﯾدة‬
Working with Large Groups
‫اﻟﻌﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت ﻛﺑﯾرة‬
Guidelines for working with large
groups: ‫إرﺷﺎدات ﻟﻠﻌﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت ﻛﺑﯾرة‬
Ø Manage the logistics
Ø Expand communication channels
Ø Build consensus
Ø Meet online
Ø Distribute documents and supporting
material electronically
Ø ‫إدارة اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﻗم ﺑﺗوﺳﯾﻊ ﻗﻧوات اﻻﺗﺻﺎل‬
Ø ‫ﺑﻧﺎء اﻟﺗواﻓق‬
Ø ‫ﯾﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﻧﺗرﻧت‬
Ø ً ‫ﺗوزﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻧدات واﻟﻣواد اﻟداﻋﻣﺔ إﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺎ‬
Building Sustainable Agreements
‫ﺑﻧﺎء اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺎت ﻣﺳﺗداﻣﺔ‬
The final step a problem-solving group
performs is developing an
implementation plan, also called an
action plan
The action plan summarizes the
activities the group and other members
of the organization agree to perform to
make sure the project succeeds
‫اﻟﺧطوة اﻷﺧﯾرة اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻘوم ﺑﮭﺎ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت ھﻲ‬
‫ﺿﺎ ﺧطﺔ ﻋﻣل‬
ً ‫ وﺗﺳﻣﻰ أﯾ‬، ‫ﺗطوﯾر ﺧطﺔ ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ‬
‫ﺗﻠﺧص ﺧطﺔ اﻟﻌﻣل اﻷﻧﺷطﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾواﻓق ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ أﻋﺿﺎء‬
‫اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ واﻷﻋﺿﺎء اﻵﺧرﯾن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﺄﻛد ﻣن ﻧﺟﺎح‬
‫اﻟﻣﺷروع‬
Building Sustainable Agreements
‫ﺑﻧﺎء اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺎت ﻣﺳﺗداﻣﺔ‬
Remember that action plans
represent change and people and
organizations tend to resist change
Involve members of the team and
others in the organization to build an
agreement that can be sustained as
the problem is solved
‫ﺗذﻛر أن ﺧطط اﻟﻌﻣل ﺗﻣﺛل اﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر وﯾﻣﯾل اﻷﺷﺧﺎص‬
‫واﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺎت إﻟﻰ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر‬
‫إﺷراك أﻋﺿﺎء اﻟﻔرﯾق وﻏﯾرھم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ ﻟﺑﻧﺎء اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ ﯾﻣﻛن‬
‫اﻟﺣﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ ﻋﻧد ﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ‬
Building Sustainable Agreements
‫ﺑﻧﺎء اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺎت ﻣﺳﺗداﻣﺔ‬
Do’s and Don’ts for building
sustainable agreements: ‫ﻣﺎ ﯾﺟب ﻓﻌﻠﮫ وﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻻ ﯾﺟب ﻓﻌﻠﮫ ﻟﺑﻧﺎء اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺎت ﻣﺳﺗداﻣﺔ‬
Ø Overcome fear
Ø Communicate openly
Ø Manage the pace
Ø Avoid stressful times
Ø ‫ﻣواﺟﮭﺔ اﻟﺧوف‬
Ø ‫اﻟﺗواﺻل ﺑﺻراﺣﺔ‬
Ø ‫إدارة وﺗﯾرة‬
Ø ‫ﺗﺟﻧب اﻷوﻗﺎت اﻟﻌﺻﯾﺑﺔ‬
Building Sustainable
Agreements
Overcoming resistance to change
‫اﻟﺗﻐﻠب ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر‬
Technology@Work: Online Scheduling
Tools
‫ أدوات اﻟﺟدوﻟﺔ ﻋﺑر اﻹﻧﺗرﻧت‬:‫اﻟﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻣل‬
Online scheduling tools such as Doodle and
Google calendar can simplify the time-consuming
task of scheduling meetings
‫ ﻣﺛل‬، ‫ ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗؤدي أدوات اﻟﺟدوﻟﺔ ﻋﺑر اﻹﻧﺗرﻧت‬Doodle ‫و‬Google calendar ‫ إﻟﻰ‬،
ً‫ﺗﺑﺳﯾط ﻣﮭﻣﺔ ﺟدوﻟﺔ اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺳﺗﻐرق وﻗﺗًﺎ طوﯾﻼ‬
In most online scheduling tools, the meeting
organizer uses an online calendar to select
meeting times
‫ﺗﻘوﯾﻣﺎ ﻋﺑر اﻹﻧﺗرﻧت ﻟﺗﺣدﯾد‬
‫ ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﻧظم اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎع‬، ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌظم أدوات اﻟﺟدوﻟﺔ ﻋﺑر اﻹﻧﺗرﻧت‬
ً
‫أوﻗﺎت اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﺎت‬
The organizer uses e-mail to notify everyone who
needs or wants to attend the meeting
‫ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻣﻧظم اﻟﺑرﯾد اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ ﻹﻋﻼم ﻛل ﻣن ﯾﺣﺗﺎج أو ﯾرﯾد ﺣﺿور اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎع‬
Participants respond by selecting times that are
most convenient for them
‫ﯾرد اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﻛون ﺑﺗﺣدﯾد اﻷوﻗﺎت اﻷﻛﺛر ﻣﻼءﻣﺔ ﻟﮭم‬
Technology@Work: Online
Scheduling Tools
Scheduling an event in Doodle
Summary ‫ﻣﻠﺧص‬
The way people work and interact with each
other is called group dynamics
A group that functions well is a team
Divergent thinking describes thought
processes and methods used to generate
ideas
Convergent thinking techniques narrow the
options to a manageable set
‫ﺗﺳﻣﻰ اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻌﻣل ﺑﮭﺎ اﻷﺷﺧﺎص وﯾﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠون ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺿﮭم اﻟﺑﻌض‬
‫ﺑدﯾﻧﺎﻣﯾﻛﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﻣل ﺑﺷﻛل ﺟﯾد ھﻲ ﻓرﯾق‬
‫ﯾﺻف اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﺑﺎﯾن ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر واﻷﺳﺎﻟﯾب اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدﻣﺔ ﻟﺗوﻟﯾد اﻷﻓﻛﺎر‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠل ﺗﻘﻧﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺔ اﻟﺧﯾﺎرات إﻟﻰ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﯾﻣﻛن اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﯾﮭﺎ‬
Summary ‫ﻣﻠﺧص‬
A team needs a leader to help it reach
closure
There are common traps that groups can fall
into
Working with a large group can be
complicated
The final step in problem-solving is building a
sustainable agreement
‫ﯾﺣﺗﺎج اﻟﻔرﯾق إﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋد ﯾﺳﺎﻋده ﻓﻲ اﻟوﺻول إﻟﻰ اﻹﻏﻼق‬
‫ھﻧﺎك اﻟﻔﺧﺎخ اﻟﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﻘﻊ ﻓﯾﮭﺎ اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﺎت‬
‫أﻣرا ﻣﻌﻘدًا‬
ً ‫ﻗد ﯾﻛون اﻟﻌﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻛﺑﯾرة‬
‫اﻟﺧطوة اﻷﺧﯾرة ﻓﻲ ﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت ھﻲ ﺑﻧﺎء اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ ﻣﺳﺗداﻣﺔ‬
Part 5: Decision Support Tools
Objectives
Understand decision support systems
Model decisions quantitatively
Describe data objectively
Work with formulas and functions
‫ﻓﮭم أﻧظﻣﺔ دﻋم اﻟﻘرار‬
‫ﻗرارات ﻧﻣوذﺟﯾﺔ ﻛﻣﯾﺎ‬
‫وﺻف اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﺑﻣوﺿوﻋﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻣل ﻣﻊ اﻟﺻﯾﻎ واﻟوظﺎﺋف‬
Objectives
Perform what-if analyses
Weigh factors
Create decision trees
Use graphics to display data
‫ﻧﻔذ ﺗﺣﻠﯾﻼت ﻣﺎذا ﻟو‬
‫وزن اﻟﻌواﻣل‬
‫إﻧﺷﺎء أﺷﺟﺎر اﻟﻘرار‬
‫اﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟرﺳوﻣﺎت ﻟﻌرض اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬
Understanding Decision Support
Systems
A decision support system (DSS) is
interactive software designed to help
you compile useful information from
raw data, documents, and business
knowledge
) ‫ﻧظﺎم دﻋم اﻟﻘرار‬DSS) ‫ھو ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﺻﻣم ﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدﺗك ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﻔﯾدة ﻣن اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻷوﻟﯾﺔ واﻟوﺛﺎﺋق واﻟﻣﻌرﻓﺔ اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ‬
A DSS is ideal for analyzing complex
problems that involve sets of data and
demand a systematic decisionmaking approach
‫ﻧظﺎم‬DSS ‫ﻣﺛﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺗﺣﻠﯾل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت اﻟﻣﻌﻘدة اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺗﺿﻣن‬
‫ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت ﻣن اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت واﻟﻣطﺎﻟﺑﺔ ﺑﻧﮭﺞ ﻣﻧﮭﺟﻲ ﻟﺻﻧﻊ اﻟﻘرار‬
Understanding Decision Support
Systems
Decision support tools offer the following
benefits for decision makers:
Ø Add objectivity to making decisions
Ø Improve efficiency for complex decisions
Ø Encourage exploration and discovery
Ø Provide support for particular decisions
Ø Help communicate decisions to other
interested people
:‫ﺗوﻓر أدوات دﻋم اﻟﻘرار اﻟﻔواﺋد اﻟﺗﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﻟﺻﻧﺎع اﻟﻘرار‬
‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻣوﺿوﻋﯾﺔ ﻻﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرارات‬
‫ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻟﻛﻔﺎءة ﻻﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرارات اﻟﻣﻌﻘدة‬
‫ﺗﺷﺟﯾﻊ اﻻﺳﺗﻛﺷﺎف واﻻﻛﺗﺷﺎف‬
‫ﺗﻘدﯾم اﻟدﻋم ﻟﻘرارات ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدة ﻓﻲ ﺗوﺻﯾل اﻟﻘرارات إﻟﻰ اﻷﺷﺧﺎص اﻟﻣﮭﺗﻣﯾن اﻵﺧرﯾن‬
Modeling Decisions
Quantitatively
Once you’ve gathered all the data related to
the problem, you can model your decisions
quantitatively
‫ ﯾﻣﻛﻧك وﺿﻊ ﻧﻣﺎذج ﻟﻣﻘرراﺗك‬، ‫ﺑﻣﺟرد ﺟﻣﻊ ﻛل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ‬
ً ‫ﻛﻣﯾﺎ‬
Modeling decisions quantitatively means you
represent the decision and its factors using
numbers
‫ﻗرارات اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ ﻛﻣﯾﺎ ﯾﻌﻧﻲ أﻧك ﺗﻣﺛل اﻟﻘرار وﻋواﻣﻠﮫ ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام اﻷرﻗﺎم‬
Modeling decisions can help you see
patterns in data, make objective choices, and
provide substantiation for decisions
، ‫ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﺳﺎﻋدك ﻗرارات وﺿﻊ اﻟﻧﻣﺎذج ﻋﻠﻰ رؤﯾﺔ اﻷﻧﻣﺎط ﻓﻲ اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬
‫ وﺗﻘدﯾم اﻟدﻟﯾل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘرارات‬، ‫واﺧﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﺧﯾﺎرات اﻟﻣوﺿوﻋﯾﺔ‬
Modeling Decisions
Quantitatively
Guidelines for modeling decisions
quantitatively:
Ø Assign numeric values to your data
Ø Compare apples to apples
Ø Rate subjective variables
Ø Use a decision model
Ø :‫ﻣﺑﺎدئ ﺗوﺟﯾﮭﯾﺔ ﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ اﻟﻘرارات ﺑﺷﻛل ﻛﻣﻲ‬
Ø ‫ﻗم ﺑﺗﻌﯾﯾن ﻗﯾم رﻗﻣﯾﺔ ﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎﺗك‬
Ø ‫ﻗﺎرن اﻟﺗﻔﺎح ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻔﺎح‬
Ø ‫ﻣﻌدل اﻟﻣﺗﻐﯾرات اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫اﺳﺗﺧدم ﻧﻣوذج اﻟﻘرار‬
Modeling Decisions
Quantitatively
Decision model
Describing Data Objectively
Most people can visualize images, concepts,
and trends more easily than large sets of
numbers
‫ﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﻣﻌظم اﻟﻧﺎس ﺗﺻور اﻟﺻور واﻟﻣﻔﺎھﯾم واﻻﺗﺟﺎھﺎت ﺑﺳﮭوﻟﺔ أﻛﺑر ﻣن‬
‫ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت ﻛﺑﯾرة ﻣن اﻷرﻗﺎم‬
When presenting data to support a decision,
provide the audience with an objective
description of the data
‫ ﻗم ﺑﺗزوﯾد اﻟﺟﻣﮭور ﺑوﺻف‬، ‫ﻋﻧد ﺗﻘدﯾم اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻟدﻋم اﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرار‬
‫ﻣوﺿوﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬
You can use statistics to explain and
compare the characteristics of data
‫ﯾﻣﻛﻧك اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻹﺣﺻﺎﺋﯾﺎت ﻟﺷرح وﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺧﺻﺎﺋص اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬
Describing Data Objectively
Terms to describe data:
Ø Arithmetic mean: the average value of a set of
data
Ø Median: the point that separates the higher
values from the lower values
Ø Mode: the value that occurs most frequently
Ø Standard deviation: a measure of the variability
of a set of data
Ø :‫ﺷروط ﻟوﺻف اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬
Ø ‫ ﻣﺗوﺳط ​​ﻗﯾﻣﺔ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬:‫اﻟﻣﺗوﺳط ​​اﻟﺣﺳﺎﺑﻲ‬
Ø ‫ اﻟﻧﻘطﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻔﺻل اﻟﻘﯾم اﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻋن اﻟﻘﯾم اﻟدﻧﯾﺎ‬:‫اﻟوﺳﯾط‬
Ø ‫ اﻟﻘﯾﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣدث ﺑﺷﻛل ﻣﺗﻛرر‬:‫اﻟوﺿﻊ‬
Ø ‫ ﻗﯾﺎس ﺗﻘﻠب ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬:‫اﻻﻧﺣراف اﻟﻣﻌﯾﺎري‬
Working with Formulas and Functions
‫اﻟﻌﻣل ﻣﻊ اﻟﺻﯾﻎ واﻟداﻻت‬
You can use mathematics to help you
analyze and compare data
‫ﯾﻣﻛﻧك اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟرﯾﺎﺿﯾﺎت ﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدﺗك ﻓﻲ ﺗﺣﻠﯾل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت وﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺗﮭﺎ‬
Mathematicians use formulas to
manipulate numeric and symbolic data
‫ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟرﯾﺎﺿﯾون ﺻﯾﻐًﺎ ﻟﻠﺗﻼﻋب ﺑﺎﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ واﻟرﻣزﯾﺔ‬
A formula typically defines a
calculation that you perform on one or
more variables
‫ﻋﺎدة ً ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘوم اﻟﺻﯾﻐﺔ ﺑﺗﻌرﯾف ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ ﺣﺳﺎﺑﯾﺔ ﺗﻘوم ﺑﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺗﻐﯾر واﺣد أو‬
‫أﻛﺛر‬
Working with Formulas and
Functions
Formulas can help identify the best
choices and solutions
‫ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﺳﺎﻋد اﻟﺻﯾﻎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺣدﯾد أﻓﺿل اﻟﺧﯾﺎرات‬
‫واﻟﺣﻠول‬
To model quantitative decisions, you
can use an electronic spreadsheet,
which supports a wide variety of
formulas and functions
‫ ﯾﻣﻛﻧك اﺳﺗﺧدام ﺟدول‬، ‫ﻟﻧﻣوذج اﻟﻘرارات اﻟﻛﻣﯾﺔ‬
‫ ﯾدﻋم ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻛﺑﯾرة ﻣن اﻟﺻﯾﻎ‬، ‫إﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ إﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ‬
‫واﻟوظﺎﺋف‬
Working with Formulas and
Functions
Guidelines for working with formulas
and functions:
Ø Format your formulas
Ø Use cell references
Ø Double-check your mathematical
operators and order
Ø Simplify with functions
Ø :‫إرﺷﺎدات ﻟﻠﻌﻣل ﻣﻊ اﻟﺻﯾﻎ واﻟوظﺎﺋف‬
Ø ‫ﺗﻧﺳﯾق اﻟﺻﯾﻎ اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑك‬
Ø ‫اﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣراﺟﻊ اﻟﺧﻠﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﺗﺣﻘق ﺟﯾد ًا ﻣن ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺗك اﻟرﯾﺎﺿﯾﺔ وﺗرﺗﯾﺑﮭﺎ‬
Ø ‫ﺑﺳّط ﻣﻊ اﻟوظﺎﺋف‬
Performing What-If Analyses
A what-if analysis allows you to study
how changing one or more values
affects the results
‫ﯾﺗﯾﺢ ﻟك ﺗﺣﻠﯾل “ﻣﺎذا ﻟو” دراﺳﺔ ﻣدى ﺗﺄﺛﯾر ﺗﻐﯾﯾر ﻗﯾﻣﺔ‬
‫واﺣدة أو أﻛﺛر ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬
What-if analyses allow you to test
scenarios or possibilities to make a
decision
‫ﺗﺳﻣﺢ ﻟك ﺗﺣﻠﯾﻼت ﻣﺎذا ﻟو أن ﺗﺧﺗﺑر‬
‫ﺳﯾﻧﺎرﯾوھﺎت أو إﻣﻛﺎﻧﯾﺎت ﻻﺗﺧﺎذ ﻗرار‬
Performing What-If Analyses
Guidelines for performing what-if
analyses:
‫إرﺷﺎدات ﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﺗﺣﻠﯾﻼت ﻣﺎذا ﻟو‬
Ø Identify decision variables ‫ﺗﺣدﯾد ﻣﺗﻐﯾرات اﻟﻘرار‬
Ø Identify the constants ‫اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺛواﺑت‬
Ø Identify output variables
Ø ‫اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺗﻐﯾرات اﻟﻣﺧرﺟﺎت‬
Ø Test several scenarios ‫اﺧﺗﺑر ﻋدة ﺳﯾﻧﺎرﯾوھﺎت‬
Ø Assess your results using common sense
Ø ‫ﺗﻘﯾﯾم ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺟك ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺣس اﻟﺳﻠﯾم‬
Performing What-If Analyses
What-if analysis with two scenarios
Weighing Factors ‫وزن اﻟﻌواﻣل‬
Sometimes more than one variable
can affect results in a decision model
‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌض اﻷﺣﯾﺎن ﻗد ﯾؤﺛر أﻛﺛر ﻣن ﻣﺗﻐﯾر ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻧﻣوذج اﻟﻘرار‬
You can assign weights to variables
‫ﯾﻣﻛﻧك ﺗﻌﯾﯾن اﻷوزان ﻟﻠﻣﺗﻐﯾرات‬
Weighing Factors
Guidelines for weighing factors
Ø Identify the most important decision
variables
Ø Determine the appropriate weights
Ø Normalize variables
Ø Consider the runners-up
Ø ‫ﻣﺑﺎدئ ﺗوﺟﯾﮭﯾﺔ ﻟﻌواﻣل اﻟوزن‬
Ø ‫ﺣدد أھم ﻣﺗﻐﯾرات اﻟﻘرار‬
Ø ‫ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻷوزان اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﺗطﺑﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﺗﻐﯾرات‬
Ø ‫اﻟﻧظر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣرﻛز اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ‬
Creating Decision Trees
A decision tree is a support tool that models
decisions using a treelike diagram
‫ﺗﻌد ﺷﺟرة اﻟﻘرارات أداة دﻋم ﺗﻘوم ﺑﺗﺻﻣﯾم اﻟﻘرارات ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام ﻣﺧطط ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬
Each branch of the tree represents an option
and its benefits, cost, and likelihood
‫ﺧﯾﺎرا وﻓواﺋده وﺗﻛﻠﻔﺗﮫ واﺣﺗﻣﺎﻟﮫ‬
‫ﯾﻣﺛل ﻛل ﻓرع ﻣن ﻓروع اﻟﺷﺟرة‬
ً
Organizations use decision trees to identify
the strategy or choice that will lead them to a
desired goal
‫ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺎت أﺷﺟﺎر اﻟﻘرار ﻟﺗﺣدﯾد اﻻﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺔ أو اﻟﺧﯾﺎر اﻟذي‬
‫ﺳﯾﻘودھم إﻟﻰ اﻟﮭدف اﻟﻣﻧﺷود‬
Decision trees create a simple summary of a
complex decision
ً
‫ﺑﺳﯾطﺎ ﻟﻘرار ﻣرﻛب‬
‫ﺻﺎ‬
ً ‫ﺗﻧﺷﺊ أﺷﺟﺎر اﻟﻘرار ﻣﻠﺧ‬
Creating Decision Trees
Guidelines for creating a decision
tree:
Ø Start with your primary decision
Ø Identify your options
Ø Consider the results
Ø Assign values and probabilities
Ø Calculate the value for each option
Ø :‫إرﺷﺎدات ﻹﻧﺷﺎء ﺷﺟرة اﻟﻘرارات‬
Ø ‫اﺑدأ ﺑﻘرارك اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
Ø ‫ﺣدد ﺧﯾﺎراﺗك‬
Ø ‫اﻟﻧظر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬
Ø ‫ﺗﻌﯾﯾن اﻟﻘﯾم واﻻﺣﺗﻣﺎﻻت‬
Ø ‫ﺣﺳﺎب اﻟﻘﯾﻣﺔ ﻟﻛل ﺧﯾﺎر‬
Creating Decision Trees
Decision tree
Using Graphics to Display Data
By representing data, decision, and solutions
graphically you can see trends,
relationships, and results that are hard to
detect in a list of numbers
‫ ﯾﻣﻛﻧك ﻣﺷﺎھدة‬، ‫ﻣن ﺧﻼل ﺗﻣﺛﯾل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت واﻟﻘرارات واﻟﺣﻠول ﺑﯾﺎﻧﯾًﺎ‬
‫اﻟﻣؤﺷرات واﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت واﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﺻﻌب اﻛﺗﺷﺎﻓﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻣﺔ اﻷرﻗﺎم‬
Drawings, charts, and other illustrations help
make your case clearer and easier for others
to understand
‫ﺗﺳﺎﻋد اﻟرﺳوﻣﺎت واﻟﻣﺧططﺎت وﻏﯾرھﺎ ﻣن اﻟرﺳوم اﻟﺗوﺿﯾﺣﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻌل‬
‫ﻗﺿﯾﺗك أﻛﺛر وﺿو ًﺣﺎ وأﺳﮭل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻵﺧرﯾن ﻓﮭﻣﮭﺎ‬
Software such as spreadsheets and
presentation graphics programs provide
tools to help you visualize and display data
‫ﺗوﻓر ﺑراﻣﺞ ﻣﺛل ﺟداول اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت وﺑراﻣﺞ اﻟرﺳوﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﻘدﯾﻣﯾﺔ أدوات‬
‫ﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدﺗك ﻓﻲ ﻋرض اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت وﻋرﺿﮭﺎ‬
Using Graphics to Display Data
Popular types of graphics that display
data:
Ø Bar charts
Ø Line charts
Ø Area charts
Ø Pie charts
Ø Scatter plots
Ø :‫اﻷﻧواع اﻟﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﻣن اﻟرﺳوﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌرض اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬
Ø ‫اﻟﻣﺧططﺎت اﻟﺷرﯾطﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫اﻟﻣﺧططﺎت اﻟﺧطﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫ﻣﺧططﺎت اﻟﻣﻧﺎطق‬
Ø ‫اﻟرﺳوم اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﯾﺔ اﻟداﺋرﯾﺔ‬
Ø ‫اﻟﻣؤاﻣرات ﻣﺑﻌﺛر‬
Using Graphics to Display Data
Types of charts
Technology@Work:
Spreadsheet Tools
You can use spreadsheet software to create
and format numeric data and calculations,
such as for budgets, commission calculators,
schedules, and income statements
‫ﯾﻣﻛﻧك اﺳﺗﺧدام ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺟداول اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻹﻧﺷﺎء اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت واﻟﺣﺳﺎﺑﺎت اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ‬
‫ وﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬، ‫ واﻟﺟداول‬، ‫ وﺣﺎﺳﺑﺎت اﻟﻌﻣوﻻت‬، ‫ ﻣﺛل اﻟﻣﯾزاﻧﯾﺎت‬، ‫وﺗﻧﺳﯾﻘﮭﺎ‬
‫اﻟدﺧل‬
Types of spreadsheet software:
Ø Microsoft Excel
‫أﻧواع ﺑراﻣﺞ ﺟداول اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬
Ø OpenOffice Calc
Ø Google Spreadsheet
Ø Gnumeric
Ø Apple Numbers
Technology@Work:
Spreadsheet Tools
You can use spreadsheets to track
numeric information, perform
calculations, perform what-if analyses,
and create charts
‫ وإﺟراء‬، ‫ﯾﻣﻛﻧك اﺳﺗﺧدام ﺟداول اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻟﺗﺗﺑﻊ اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ‬
‫ وإﻧﺷﺎء‬، ‫ ﻟو‬- ‫ وﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﺗﺣﻠﯾﻼت ﻣﺎذا‬، ‫اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﺣﺳﺎﺑﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻣﺧططﺎت‬
Spreadsheets are especially helpful
when recording and analyzing financial
information
‫ﺗﻌﺗﺑر ﺟداول اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻣﻔﯾدة ﺑﺷﻛل ﺧﺎص ﻋﻧد ﺗﺳﺟﯾل وﺗﺣﻠﯾل‬
‫اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬
Technology@Work:
Spreadsheet Tools
Microsoft Excel
Technology@Work:
Spreadsheet Tools
Google Spreadsheets
Summary
A decision support system is interactive
software designed to help you compile
useful information to make decisions
‫ﻧظﺎم دﻋم اﻟﻘرار ھو ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﺻﻣم ﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدﺗك ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺟﻣﯾﻊ‬
‫اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﻔﯾدة ﻻﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرارات‬
Modeling decisions quantitatively
means you represent a decision and its
factors using numbers
‫ﻗرارات اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ ﻛﻣﯾﺎ ﯾﻌﻧﻲ أﻧك ﺗﻣﺛل اﻟﻘرار وﻋواﻣﻠﮫ ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام‬
‫اﻷرﻗﺎم‬
It’s important to provide an objective
description of data
‫ﻣن اﻟﻣﮭم ﺗوﻓﯾر وﺻف ﻣوﺿوﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬
Summary
You can use formulas and functions to model
a decision ‫ﯾﻣﻛﻧك اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺻﯾﻎ واﻟوظﺎﺋف ﻟﻧﻣوذج اﻟﻘرار‬
A what-if analysis allows you to study how
changing one or more values affects the
results ‫ﯾﺗﯾﺢ ﻟك ﺗﺣﻠﯾل “ﻣﺎذا ﻟو” دراﺳﺔ ﻣدى ﺗﺄﺛﯾر ﺗﻐﯾﯾر ﻗﯾﻣﺔ واﺣدة أو‬
‫أﻛﺛرﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬
You can assign weights to variables to help in
decision making
‫ﯾﻣﻛﻧك ﺗﻌﯾﯾن أوزان ﻟﻠﻣﺗﻐﯾرات ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺎﻋدة ﻓﻲ اﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرار‬
A decision tree models decisions using a
treelike diagram
‫ﺗﺷﻛّل ﺷﺟرة اﻟﻘرارات اﻟﻘرارات ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام ﻣﺧطط ﺛﻼﺛﻲ اﻟﺷّﻛل‬
Graphics can help make data more accessible
‫ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﺳﺎﻋد اﻟرﺳوﻣﺎت ﻓﻲ ﺟﻌل اﻟوﺻول إﻟﻰ اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت أﻛﺛر ﺳﮭوﻟﺔ‬

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